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What Is a QPU? | NVIDIA Blogs


Simply as GPUs and DPUs allow accelerated computing right this moment, they’re additionally serving to a brand new type of chip, the QPU, boot up the promise of quantum computing.

In your hand, a quantum processing unit would possibly appear and feel similar to a graphics or a knowledge processing unit. They’re all usually chips, or modules with a number of chips, however beneath the hood the QPU is a really completely different beast.

So, What’s a QPU?

A QPU, aka a quantum processor, is the mind of a quantum laptop that makes use of the habits of particles like electrons or photons to make sure sorts of calculations a lot quicker than processors in right this moment’s computer systems.

QPUs depend on behaviors like superposition, the flexibility of a particle to be in lots of states directly, described within the comparatively new department of physics known as quantum mechanics.

Against this, CPUs, GPUs and DPUs all apply rules of classical physics to electrical currents. That’s why right this moment’s techniques are known as classical computer systems.

QPUs might advance cryptography, quantum simulations and machine studying and remedy thorny optimization issues.

Quantum processing models Graphics processing models
Depends on quantum physics Depends on classical physics
Makes use of qubits that may be greater than 0 and 1 Makes use of bits which are both 0 or 1
Makes use of states of subatomic particles Makes use of electrical energy switched in transistors
Nice for cryptography and simulating quantum results Nice for HPC, AI and classical simulations

How Does a Quantum Processor Work?

CPUs and GPUs calculate in bits, on/off states {of electrical} present that symbolize zeros or ones. Against this, QPUs get their distinctive powers by calculating in qubits — quantum bits that may symbolize many alternative quantum states.

A qubit is an abstraction that laptop scientists use to precise knowledge based mostly on the quantum state of a particle in a QPU. Just like the fingers on a clock, qubits level to quantum states which are like factors in a sphere of prospects.

The facility of a QPU is commonly described by the variety of qubits it comprises. Researchers are creating extra methods to check and measure the general efficiency of a QPU.

Many Methods to Make a Qubit

Company and tutorial researchers are utilizing all kinds of strategies to create the qubits inside a QPU.

The preferred strategy today is named a superconducting qubit. It’s principally constructed from a number of tiny metallic sandwiches known as Josephson junctions, the place electrons tunnel via an insulating layer between two superconducting supplies.

Qubits in IBM's Eagle QPU
Qubits inside IBM’s Eagle superconducting QPU.

The present cutting-edge creates greater than 100 of those junctions right into a single QPU. Quantum computer systems utilizing this strategy isolate the electrons by cooling them to temperatures close to absolute zero with highly effective fridges that appear to be high-tech chandeliers. (See picture beneath.)

A Qubit of Mild

Some corporations use photons relatively than electrons to type qubits of their quantum processors. These QPUs don’t require costly, power-hungry fridges, however they want subtle lasers and beam splitters to handle the photons.

Refrigerator for a quantum processor
A refrigeration unit for a superconducting quantum laptop.


Researchers are utilizing and inventing different methods to create and join qubits inside QPUs. For instance, some use an analog course of known as quantum annealing, however techniques utilizing these QPUs have restricted purposes.

It’s early days for quantum computer systems, so it’s not but clear what kinds of qubits in what sorts of QPUs will likely be broadly used.

Easy Chips, Unique Techniques

Theoretically, QPUs might require much less energy and generate much less warmth than classical processors. Nevertheless, the quantum computer systems they plug into may be considerably energy hungry and costly.

That’s as a result of quantum techniques usually require specialised digital or optical management subsystems to exactly manipulate particles. And most require vacuum enclosures, electromagnetic shielding or subtle fridges to create the proper surroundings for the particles.

A QPU in a full D-Wave quantum computer
D-Wave exhibits qubits and QPU in a full system.

That’s one cause why quantum computer systems are anticipated to reside primarily in supercomputing facilities and enormous knowledge facilities.

QPUs Do Cool Stuff

Because of the advanced science and know-how, researchers anticipate the QPUs inside quantum computer systems will ship superb outcomes. They’re particularly enthusiastic about 4 promising prospects.

First, they may take laptop safety to an entire new degree.

Quantum processors can issue huge numbers shortly, a core perform in cryptography. Meaning they may break right this moment’s safety protocols, however they’ll additionally create new, way more highly effective ones.

As well as, QPUs are ideally suited to simulating the quantum mechanics of how stuff works on the atomic degree. That might allow elementary advances in chemistry and supplies science, beginning domino results in all the things from the design of lighter airplanes to simpler medication.

Researchers additionally hope quantum processors will remedy optimization issues classical computer systems can’t deal with in fields like finance and logistics. And at last, they might even advance machine studying.

So, When Will QPUs Be Obtainable?

For quantum researchers, QPUs can’t come quickly sufficient. However challenges span the gamut.

On the {hardware} degree, QPUs aren’t but highly effective or reliable sufficient to sort out most real-world jobs. Nevertheless, early QPUs — and GPUs simulating them with software program like NVIDIA cuQuantum — are starting to indicate outcomes that assist researchers, particularly in tasks exploring construct higher QPUs and develop quantum algorithms.

Researchers are utilizing prototype techniques out there via a number of corporations like Amazon, IBM, IonQ, Rigetti, Xanadu and extra. Governments all over the world are starting to see the promise of the know-how, so that they’re making vital investments to construct ever bigger and extra bold techniques.

How Do You Program a Quantum Processor?

Software program for quantum computing continues to be in its infancy.

A lot of it appears just like the type of assembly-language code programmers needed to slog via within the early days of classical computer systems. That’s why builders have to grasp the small print of the underlying quantum {hardware} to get their applications working.

However right here, too, there are actual indicators of progress towards the holy grail — a single software program surroundings that can work throughout any supercomputer, a kind of quantum OS.

A number of early tasks are within the works. All wrestle with the constraints of the present {hardware}; some are hampered by the bounds of the businesses creating the code.

For instance, some corporations have deep experience in enterprise computing however lack expertise within the type of high-performance environments the place a lot of the scientific and technical work in quantum computing will likely be executed. Others lack experience in AI, which has synergies with quantum computing.

Enter Hybrid Quantum Techniques

The analysis neighborhood broadly agrees that for the foreseeable future, classical and quantum computer systems will work in tandem. So, software program must run nicely throughout QPUs, CPU and GPUs, too.

Diagram of a QPU inside a quantum computer from a 2017 paper
Researchers described a hybrid classical-quantum laptop in a 2017 paper.

To drive quantum computing ahead, NVIDIA lately introduced the NVIDIA Quantum Optimized System Structure (QODA), an open platform for programming hybrid quantum techniques.

QODA features a high-level language that’s concise and expressive so it’s highly effective and simple to make use of. With QODA, builders can write applications that run on QPUs in quantum computer systems and GPUs simulating QPUs in classical techniques.

QODA programming software for QPUs
NVIDIA QODA gives builders a unified platform for programming any hybrid quantum-classical laptop.

QODA will assist each type of quantum laptop and each kind of QPU.

At its launch, quantum system and software program suppliers together with Pasqal, Xanadu, QC Ware and Zapata expressed assist for QODA. Customers embrace main supercomputing facilities within the U.S. and Europe.

QODA builds on NVIDIA’s in depth experience in CUDA software program, which accelerates HPC and AI workloads for scientific, technical and enterprise customers.

With a beta launch of QODA anticipated earlier than the tip of the 12 months, the outlook for QPUs in 2023 and past is brilliant.

—Yunchao Liu, a Ph.D. candidate in quantum computing on the College of California, Berkeley, assisted within the analysis for this text.





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